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Useful Links

External publications and Web sites that have information on issues related to providing reliable electricity and energy services at health facilities.

USAID and Powering Health make no warrantee or guarantee regarding these external resources, and the organizations hosting these resources are solely responsible for their content.

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 Batteries

Lead-Acid Battery Guide

Lead-Acid Battery Guide for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems, International Energy Agency, Dec 1999 (PDF 396K)

This guide is a compilation of mostly well known information on lead acid batteries for professional users. Still this information is seldom available for the user/installer of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems not connected to the power grid. The battery is the weakest part of a stand-alone PV system today. Even by using only part of the information given in this guide the battery lifetime can be extended and the lifecycle cost can be reduced substantially in a PV system.


Batteries and Charge Control in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

Batteries and Charge Control in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems: Fundamentals and Application, Sandia National Laboratories, Jan 1997 (PDF 263K)

This report presents an overview of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. This work is a compilation of information from several sources, including PV system design manuals, research reports, data from component manufacturers, and lessons learned from hardware evaluations.


 

 Blood Safety

The Blood Cold Chain

The Blood Cold Chain: Guide to the Selection and Procurement of Equipment and Accessories, World Health Organization, Nov 2002 (PDF 792K)

This is the first WHO publication dedicated to assisting managers of blood programmes to select and procure equipment and devices for the blood cold chain. This publication also aims to provide basic information on the blood cold chain and guidelines on its management.


PQS catalogue

Performance Quality Safety (PQS) Catalogue, World Health Organization, March 2013

This publication provides general information on the choice of equipment, together with specific technical and purchasing data for individual selected items.


 

 Cold Chain

The Blood Cold Chain

The Blood Cold Chain: Guide to the Selection and Procurement of Equipment and Accessories, World Health Organization, Nov 2002 (PDF 792K)

This is the first WHO publication dedicated to assisting managers of blood programmes to select and procure equipment and devices for the blood cold chain. This publication also aims to provide basic information on the blood cold chain and guidelines on its management.


PQS catalogue

Performance Quality Safety (PQS) Catalogue, World Health Organization, March 2013

This publication provides general information on the choice of equipment, together with specific technical and purchasing data for individual selected items.


 

 Hybrid Systems

Economics and Performance of PV Hybrid Power System

Economics and Performance of PV Hybrid Power Systems: Three Case Studies, Sandia National Laboratories, Jul 1998 (PDF 54K)

The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center (PVSAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been supporting the development and implementation of off-grid PV hybrid power systems for many years. This paper presents a summary of the performance and economical analyses conducted on three PV hybrid systems.

 


 

 Information and Communications Technology

Thumbnail image of Guide to Energy Options for Small-Scale Rural ICT Projects cover

Guide to Energy Options for Small-Scale Rural ICT Projects, (PDF 1,764K)

This guide addresses the challenge of meeting the small-scale energy needs of ICT installations in rural and remote areas where there is insufficient access to high-quality, reliable electricity to meet the needs of the ICT installation.


Thumbnail image of Improving Health, Connecting People cover

Improving Health, Connecting People: The Role of ICTs in the Health Sector of Developing Countries, (PDF 664K)

This framework paper describes the major challenges faced in using ICTs effectively in the health sector of developing countries. It draws out good practice, identifies major players and stakeholders, and highlights priority needs and issues of relevance to policy makers who are involved in the development or management of programmes in developing countries.    


Inveneo

Inveneo, Connecting Those Who Need It Most

Inveneo and their in-country partners design and deliver highly sustainable and affordable ICT solutions for organizations that provide vital services – education, healthcare, economic development – in rural and under-served areas in the developing world.


 

 Photovoltaic Systems

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Installing Photovoltaic Systems: A Question and Answer Guide for Solar Electric Systems, Florida Solar Energy Center, May 1999 (PDF 189K)

This Question and Answer Guide for Solar Electric Systems addresses general considerations about photovoltaics (PV) technology and requirements for installing photovoltaic power systems, including building-integrated applications. Contained in this guide are commonly asked questions about the technology, and responses based on current state-of-the-art equipment and industry design practice.


PV GAP

PV GAP: Global Approval Program for Photovoltaics

Standards and Codes of Practice for PV. More information on PV GAP resources can also be found on the Standards page.


 

 Refrigeration

PATH

Care and Repair of Refrigerators for Vaccine Storage

This page contains PDF training modules for refrigerator technicians produced by WHO between 1985 and 1988 including handbooks on different types of refrigerators and materials from a ten-day course for compression and solar refrigerator repair technicians.


Solar Photovoltaic Refrigeration of Vaccines

Solar Photovoltaic Refrigeration of Vaccines, Intermediate Technology Development Group, Jul 2002 (PDF 131K)

Solar radiation tends to be high in climates that have great needs for cooling, a great deal of effort has been directed to develop solar powered refrigerators. Solar photovoltaic power for refrigerators has great potential for lower running costs, greater reliability and a longer working life than kerosene refrigerators or diesel generators, which have been generally used in remote areas.


 

 Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics

Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sep 1998 (PDF 708K)

A guide to the appropriate role of renewables in providing rural health care services, combining technical analysis and practical design, deployment, and training experience. Useful in consideration of renewables for electrifying rural health clinics. May be useful to renewable energy practitioners in designing and deploying their products for health clinic needs. Contains a glossary of renewable energy terms in the appendix.


World Bank

Renewable Energy Toolkit (REToolkit), The World Bank

This page provides a broad set of tools to assist the design and implementation of renewable energy (RE) projects, incorporating best practices and lessons learned and addressing practical implementation needs at each stage in the project cycle. Also, watch for an upcoming updated version of the REToolkit.


 

 Waste Management

Managing Health Care Waste Disposal: Guidelines

Managing Health Care Waste Disposal: Guidelines on How to Construct, Use, and Maintain a Waste Disposal Unit, IT Power India, Sep 2004, (PDF 2,730K)

This set of guidelines provide an integrated solution for waste disposal, and clear technical specifications and engineering drawings for each component of the De Montfort Waste Disposal Unit (WDU), while keeping in mind the limitations at different locations when suggesting solutions. In developing these guidelines, controlled testing field trials were conducted and relevant outcomes examined to incorporate design improvements.


Managing Health Care Waste Disposal: Manual

Managing Health Care Waste Disposal: Operator’s Manual, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 (PDF 885K)

This manual provides guidelines and explanations on the use of the Waste Disposal Unit (WDU) for operators, describing the components of the WDU, the tasks and decisions facing the operator, the procedures in loading and burning the waste, and the requirements for record-keeping. It also stresses a discipline of instructions – “best practices” to ensure the safety of operators, other personnel and the community at large, and to minimize emissions from the incinerator that are harmful to the environment.


 

 Wind Turbines

Small Wind Electric Systems

Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer’s Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2005 (PDF 1,270K)

The purpose of this guide is to provide you with the basic information about small wind electric systems to help you decide if wind energy will work for you.